E through H

E

Echocardiogram: a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. It is performed to evaluate the valves and chambers of the heart.

Embolus: a clot that forms in one part of the body and travels in the bloodstream to another part of the body

Embolization: the blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material. Embolization can be done as treatment to block the flow of blood to a tumor.

Endometrial: having to do with the endometrium (the layer of tissue that lines the uterus).

Excision: Removal by surgery. An excisional biopsy is a surgical procedure in which an entire lump or suspicious area is removed for diagnosis. The tissue is then examined under a microscope.

 

F

Fibroid: a benign smooth-muscle tumor, usually in the uterus or gastrointestinal tract. Also called leiomyoma.

Fibroadenoma: a benign tumor that usually forms in the breast from both fibrous and glandular tissue. Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast tumors.

Fiducial marker: a small gold seed or platinum coil that is placed around a tumor to act as a radiologic landmark.

Follicular: cancer that develops from cells in the follicular areas of the thyroid; one of the slow-growing, highly treatable types of thyroid cancer.

Free radicals: molecules which damage cells and alter the DNA of the cell.

 

G

Gallium scan: a procedure to detect areas of the body where cells are dividing rapidly. It is used to locate cancer cells or areas of inflammation. A very small amount of radioactive gallium is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The gallium is taken up by rapidly dividing cells in the bones, tissues, and organs and is detected by a scanner.

Gastrectomy: an operation to remove all or part of the stomach.

Genetic fusion: a gene that is formed when the genetic material from two previously separate genes are mixed.

Genetic mutation: a change in the structure of a gene.

Granulocytopenia: a lack or low level of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Often used interchangeably with neutropenia.

 

H

Hairy cell leukemia: a rare type of leukemia in which abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) are present in the bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood. When viewed under a microscope, these cells appear to be covered with tiny hair-like projections.

Hematocrit: the percent of the total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells in a complete blood count.

Hemangiosarcoma: a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line blood vessels.

Hemoglobin: the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues.

Hematologist: a doctor who specializes in treating blood disorders.

Hemoptysis: coughing up of blood or of bloodstained sputum.