N through Q

N

Neoadjuvant therapy: any therapy that begins before surgery.

Next generation sequencing: a technique or method of sequencing large amounts of DNA accurately in a short period of time.

Nephrectomy: surgery to remove a kidney or part of a kidney. In a partial nephrectomy, part of one kidney or a tumor is removed, but not an entire kidney. In a simple nephrectomy, one kidney is removed. In a radical nephrectomy, an entire kidney, nearby adrenal gland and lymph nodes, and other surrounding tissue are removed. In a bilateral nephrectomy, both kidneys are removed.

Neutropenia: an abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils (the most common type of white blood cells) in the blood.

Neutrophils: white blood cells that fight bacterial infection.

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: any of a large group of cancers of the immune system. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur at any age and are often marked by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which can be divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing) types and can be classified as either B-cell or T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

 

O

Ocular melanoma: a rare cancer of melanocytes (cells that produce the pigment melanin) found in the eye. Also called intraocular melanoma.

Oncologist: a doctor who specializes in treating cancer. Some oncologists specialize in a particular type of cancer treatment. For example, a radiation oncologist specializes in treating cancer with radiation.

 

P

Pancreas: a glandular organ located in the abdomen. It makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. The stomach, intestines, and other organs surround the pancreas.

Pancreatectomy: surgery to remove all or part of the pancreas. In a total pancreatectomy, part of the stomach, part of the small intestine, the common bile duct, gallbladder, spleen, and nearby lymph nodes also are removed.

Papillary: a tumor shaped like a small mushroom, with its stem attached to the epithelial layer (inner lining) of an organ.

Paracentesis: a procedure in which a thin needle or tube is put into the abdomen to remove fluid from the peritoneal cavity (the space within the abdomen that contains the intestines, the stomach, and the liver).

Positron emission tomography (PET): a nuclear scan that uses radioisotopes to create images from within the body, allowing physicians to evaluate organ function, localize disease or tumors and gauge response to therapies

Phlebitis: inflammation of superficial veins (veins that are just below the surface of the skin) that often result in pain.

Platelet: a type of blood cell that helps prevent bleeding by causing blood clots to form. Also called a thrombocyte.

Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI): a kind of radiation treatment that may be used to kill cancer cells in the brain that may not be visible on x-rays or scans.

Prostate: a gland in the male reproductive system. The prostate surrounds the part of the urethra (the tube that empties the bladder) just below the bladder, and produces a fluid that forms part of the semen.

Pulmonary embolism: a potentially fatal blood clot that travels to the lungs, blocking major blood vessels.

 

Q

Quadrantectomy: surgical removal of the region of the breast containing cancer.